The yellow badge that was to be eventually used by the Nazis as a badge of shame against the Jews was actually first introduced by a Muslim caliph in Baghdad in the 9th century as a variant of the zunār. This then spread to the western world during medieval times.
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- Tafsir ibn Kathir - Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr and Disgrace
- Bernard Lewis - The Jews of Islam - Princeton University Press, June 1, 1987, pp. 25-26.
- Taliban to mark Afghan Hindus - CNN, May 22, 2001
- Jack Kelley - Taliban: Hindus must wear identity labels - USA TODAY, June 19, 2001
- T.C. Malhotra - US Lawmakers Condemn Taliban Treatment Of Hindus - CNS News, July 7, 2008