WikiIslam:Formatting

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WIFMT

Formatting a WikiIslam article differs from when writing on a standard word processor. Wikis use text codes to create particular elements of the page (e.g., headings). This markup language is known as wikitext (or wiki-markup) and is designed for ease of editing.

Font

Bolding and italicizing are done by surrounding a word or phrase with multiple apostrophes ('):

Input Output
''italic'' italic

'''bold'''

bold

'''''bold italic'''''

bold italic

Bold emphasis should only be used within quotation boxes or when the name of an article's subject in an encyclopedic page is first mentioned. In all other cases, italics should be used when emphasis is needed (this should be used sparingly and only when absolutely needed). Underlining and ALLCAPS should be avoided.

Sections

Headings and subheadings are a way to improve the organization of an article. If there are two or more distinct topics being discussed, the article should be made more readable by inserting a heading for each topic — that is making each into its own section. This can go up to subsubsubsubheadings.

Input Output
==Headings==

Headings

===Subheadings===

Subheadings

====Subsubheadings====

Subsubheadings

If an article has at least four headings, a table of contents will automatically be generated. Headings do not form a part of the main text. They only indicate the general topic of that particular section, and should not contain information not found within its main text. So when choosing titles for headings and subheading, questions or long sentences should be avoided.

Lists

Input Output

* Unordered lists can be created by:
** Starting every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
*: Previous item continues.
** A new line
* in a list
marks the end of the list.
* A new list can be started again.

  • Unordered lists can be created by:
    • Starting every line with a star.
      • More stars indicate a deeper level.
    Previous item continues.
    • A newline
  • in a list

marks the end of the list.

  • A new list can be started again.

# Used appropriately, numbered lists can be:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
A new line marks the end of the list.
# New numbering starts with 1.

  1. Used appropriately, numbered lists can be:
    1. Very organized
    2. Easy to follow

A new line marks the end of the list.

  1. New numbering starts with 1.

Quotations

Box Quotations | Islamic Texts

When quoting an Islamic text in the 'Relevant Quotations' sections or QHS articles, the Quotation template should be used: {{Quote|###|###}}

The first parameter is the reference for the text being quoted (this parameters can be left empty if references are being cited via ref tags). The second parameter is where the actual quotation is placed.

There are many templates available for Islamic sources (e.g. Qur'an, Bukhari, Muslim, Dawud, Malik's Muwatta, Tirmidhi, Nasai, Majah and Tabari). To quote an Islamic text, the relevant template for referencing that particular text must be placed within the first parameter of the Quotation template.

Input Output
{{Quran|2|256}}|Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error...}}
Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error...

For quoting general sources, a modified version of the Cite Web template is used. The modified Cite Web template must be placed within the first parameter of the Quotation template.

Input Output
{{Quote|{{cite web quotebox|url= http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888|title= Productivity suffers during holy month|publisher= The Jordan Times|author= Mohammad Ghazal|date= September 10, 2009|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888&date=2011-04-04|deadurl=no}}|The holy month at the time of the Prophet Mohammad and his companions was a time of great achievements and crucial battles won by the Muslims, Sharia (Islamic law) scholar Hamdi Murad said Wednesday.}}
The holy month at the time of the Prophet Mohammad and his companions was a time of great achievements and crucial battles won by the Muslims, Sharia (Islamic law) scholar Hamdi Murad said Wednesday.
"Productivity suffers during holy month" (archived)
Mohammad Ghazal, The Jordan Times, September 10, 2009, http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888.
 

Templates make it easy to cite Islamic sources. For example, instead of finding the exact USC-MSA URL of a Qur'an verse or hadith, all that is needed is to type {{Muslim|7|88}} and the reference and link is automatically created. Here are some templates you can use.

Referencing the Qur'an

Not all Qur'an-related templates are covered here. Refer to the Q section in Category:Templates for the full list.

Single Verse

To reference a verse from the Qur'an type: {{Quran|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the verse number.

Multiple Verses

To reference multiple verses from the Qur'an type: {{Quran-range|#|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the starting verse number, and the third parameter is the ending verse number.

Verse and Transliteration

To reference a verse from the Qur'an along with its Romanized transliteration type: {{Qtt|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the verse number

Referencing Hadith

Referencing Sahih Bukhari

To reference a hadith from Bukhari type: {{Bukhari|#|#|#}} The first parameter is the volume number, the second parameter is the book number and the third parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

Sahih Bukhari Alternative

You can cite a hadith using its Dar-us-Salam reference number (as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Bukhari) by adding an additional parameter with the value "darussalam".

To do so type: {{Bukhari|||#|darussalam}} (note that the first parameter for the volume number and second parameter for the book number are left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

You can also cite a Bukhari hadith using the In-book reference convention (created by sunnah.com) by adding an additional parameter with the value "in-book".

To do so type: {{Bukhari||#|#|in-book}} (note that the first parameter for the volume is left empty for in-book citations)

The book number in the In-book reference system corresponds with the book number in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Bukhari, and the hadith number is an incremental number which starts at 1 for the first hadith in each book.

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Sahih Muslim

To reference a hadith from Muslim type: {{Muslim|#|#}}

The first parameter is the book number and the second parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

Sahih Muslim Alternative

You can cite a hadith by a single hadith reference number as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sahih Muslim by adding an additional parameter with the value "reference". Please note that this is not the square bracket number in the Dar-us-Salam edition, but rather the round bracket number for the hadith in the same book, which was devised by the Islamic scholar Fuwad Abdul Baqi. This is a number commonly used when citing hadiths in Sahih Muslim.

To do so type: {{Muslim||#|reference}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

You can also cite a Sahih Muslim hadith using the In-book reference convention (created by sunnah.com) by adding an additional parameter with the value "in-book".

To do so type: {{Muslim|#|#|in-book}}

The book number in the In-book reference system corresponds with the book number in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sahih Muslim, and the hadith number is an incremental number which starts at 1 for the first hadith in each book.

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Abu Dawud

To reference a hadith from Abu Dawud type: {{Abudawud|#|#}}

The first parameter is the book number and the second parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system. The USC-MSA (CMJE) partial collection for Abu Dawud only included roughly half of his hadiths.

Abu Dawud Alternative

You can cite a Sunan Abu Dawud hadith using the reference system found in the translation of the entire Abu Dawud collection by Ahmad Hasan (this translation is used by USC-MSA and other popular sites). You can do this by adding an additional parameter with the value "hasan".

To do so type: {{Abudawud||#|hasan}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Ahmad Hasan reference citations - they are not used because his book numbers varied depending on the edition).

Ahmad Hasan's hadith (narration) numbers were also used by USC-MSA (for the hadiths in their partial collection). USC-MSA used the book numbers from the 1990 edition of Hasan's translation, which had 41 books unlike the other editions in which he put the same hadiths into 36 books.

You can also cite a hadith using its Dar-us-Salam reference number (as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan Abu Dawud) by adding an additional parameter with the value "darussalam".

To do so type: {{Abudawud||#|darussalam}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Muwatta

To reference a hadith from Malik's Muwatta type: {{Muwatta|#||#}} (note the empty 2nd parameter)

The first parameter is the book number, the second parameter is the section number (no longer used), and the third parameter is the narration number. If you do happen to know the section number (second parameter) for the hadith you are citing, put it in anyway as it might be useful one day.

An optional fourth parameter allowed a suffix to be added to the narration number (no longer used, but put it in if you know there is one in case it's useful one day). The disused 2nd and 4th parameters are retained for the sake of earlier citations which had them, and their values are visible on the pages although not included in the links (except when they were mistakenly used for the book and hadith number - the template can detect this).

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

Muwatta Alternative

To do so type: {{Muwatta|#||#||arabic}} (note the empty 2nd and 4th parameters)

The alternative referencing system allows hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).}}

Referencing Tirmidhi

To reference a hadith from Tirmidhi type: {{Al Tirmidhi||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter is the book number on sunnah.com (can be left blank), the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Jami` at-Tirmidhi (this is the reference called "English reference" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. It is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It is recommended to input this parameter in case it is ever needed in future.

Referencing Nasa'i

To reference a hadith from Nasai'i type: {{Al Nasai||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter can be left blank, the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan an-Nasa'i (this is the reference called "English translation" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. In any case for Nasa'i it was always the same as the book number in the 3rd parameter, so was redundant anyway.

Referencing Ibn Majah

To reference a hadith from Ibn Majah type: {{Ibn Majah||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter can be left blank, the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan Ibn Majah (this is the reference called "English reference" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. In any case for Ibn Majah it was always the same as the book number in the 3rd parameter, so was redundant anyway.

Referencing Sirah

Referencing Tabari

To reference text from Tabari type: {{Tabari|###|###}}

The first parameter is the volume number and the second parameter is the page or page range. "p." or "pp." (whichever is applicable) will have to be typed in manually. For example, {{Tabari|4|p. 220}} or {{Tabari|4|pp. 220-221}}.

Examples

Input Output
{{Quran|2|35}} Quran 2:35
{{Quran-range|2|35|36}} Quran 2:35-36
{{Qtt|2|35}} Qur'an Text/Transliteration 2:35
{{Bukhari|1|1|5}} Sahih Bukhari 1:1:5
{{Muslim|1|5}} Sahih Muslim 1:5
{{Abudawud|1|7}} Sunan Abu Dawud 1:7
{{Muwatta|1|1|5|}}

Al-Muwatta 1:5

{{Al Tirmidhi|2|1|2|6}} Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1:2:6
{{Al Nasai|26|4|26|3257}} Sunan an-Nasa'i 4:26:3257
{{Ibn Majah|9|3|9|1903}} Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1903
{{Tabari|4|p. 220}} Al-Tabari, Vol. 4, p. 220

Indented Quotations | General in-text

To add an indented quotation without any surrounding box, type: {{Quote-text|###|###}}

The parameters are used in the same way as in the Quote template described above. For example, to quote Quran 2:256, this is what has to be typed:

{{Quote-text|{{Quran|2|29}}|He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.}}

And it should produce this:

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.

In-line Citations

Single Citation

An example of a reference being made on a page:

This is how to provide inline citations.[1](article text)

(more article text)

References


  1. This is the reference text. Links can also be provided

Here is what has to be typed:

This is how to provide inline citations.<ref>This is the reference text. [http://example.com/ Links can also be provided]</ref>

At the end of an article, there should be a "References" heading and below that:

{{reflist}}

The wiki will then automatically do everything else to produce the reference. To edit the reference section produced at the bottom, edit the <ref> tags.

Multiple Citations

For multiple citations of the same reference or footnote:

<ref name="name here">details of the citation</ref>

Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding:

<ref name="name here"></ref>

Cite Web

The Cite Web template deals with the actual references i.e. the content that goes between the ref tags. Its use ensures that the formatting for references remains consistent throughout the site and also enables easy system-wide changes.

When citing references in articles, it is important not to leave naked URLs. What is being referenced should be easily identifiable without having to leave the page through an external link. For example, this link:

http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888

When applied to the Cite Web template:

{{cite web|url= http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888|title= Productivity suffers during holy month|publisher= The Jordan Times|author= Mohammad Ghazal|date= September 10, 2009|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888&date=2011-04-04|deadurl=no}}

Should produce this:

Mohammad Ghazal, "Productivity suffers during holy month", The Jordan Times, September 10, 2009 (archived), http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888. 

Minimal Parameters

{{cite web| url= | title= | author= | publisher= | date= | archiveurl= | deadurl=no/yes}}
  • url= URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.
  • title= Title of web page. Displays in quotes.
  • author= Name of author or authors if available.
  • publisher= Organization or website's name. A website's URL should be used only when there is no proper name available. So, for example, Islam Q&A is located at islamqa.info, but Islam Q&A is the title that should be cited as the publisher.
  • date= Full date of source being referenced in the month/day/year format (e.g. February 21, 2014). This is the date mentioned on the website (if any).
  • accessdate= Full date when URL was accessed (use if the sourced page does not indicate a date of publication).
  • archiveurl= The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite.
  • deadurl= When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.

Additional Parameters

| accessdate= | series= | isbn= | page= | pages= | quote= | language=
  • series= Additional information that cannot be included under author or publisher. For example journal number
  • quote= Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.
  • isbn= For citing books. The ISBN is a numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit SBN code. Most published books have them.
  • page= Page number of the book/journal being cited.
  • pages= Page numbers of the book/journal being cited. Used when the information is spread over more than 1 page (e.g. 223-224).
  • language= Language of content being cited. Only needed for languages other than English

Multi-Columned References

For ease of reading, when a page includes many citations, the standard {{reflist}} template should be replaced by {{Reflist|30em}} (for 10+ citations).

Links

Internal Links

Internal link can be added by enclosing the name of the target page in double square brackets ([[]]). If the page exists, it is displayed in blue, if it does not, it is displayed in red. Leaving red links should always be avoided. Piped links can be used when the displayed text is required to be different to the page title of the actual target page ([[page title|desired text]]). This is often required because WikiIslam uses title-case for capitalization of headings.

External Links

Most articles also include links to supplementary external web content (i.e. an "External Links" section). These sections should always be placed below the "See Also" section and above the "References" section. Links should be kept to a minimum (about two) and should be beneficial to the page in some way. They should not be provided just for the sake of providing them. They should include additional information that is not available or out of the scope of WikiIslam. External links should always be archived and can be cited using the External link template.

Archived Links

Link rot is a frequently occurring phenomena where external website links become unavailable after some time.

The Cite Web template has two parameters dedicated to archived links. This is due to the many sources that are comprised of links to external websites, making the preservation of the content of these external links very important. However, archiving links is very easy and only takes a moment.

WebCitation.org

WebCite archives:

  • Regular web pages
  • Forum threads
  • Blogs
  • PDF and other media files

But it does not archive Facebook pages.

To archive a page, enter the target URL and any email address as that of the citing author on the WebCite archive form (http://www.webcitation.org/archive), then press submit. Using the "transparent" WebCite URL is preferred over the short one.

Archive.is

Archive.is archives:

  • Regular web pages
  • Forum threads
  • Blogs
  • Facebook pages

But it does not archive PDF and other media files.

To archive a page, enter the target URL into the "submit url" box (http://archive.is/) and press submit. You will then see the new archived URL that can be used in the 'archiveurl' parameter for the Cite Web template.

Embedded Links

Embedded links to external websites should never be used as a form of inline citation. Nevertheless, they are used on occasion, for example, in the Translations of Arabic/Islamic Media pages. In these rare instances, only a single link is appropriate, rather than both the original and the archive link side-by-side. For these, the Reference archive template should be used.

To use this template, the target URL would have to be archived by entering it into the WebCite archive form (http://www.webcitation.org/archive).

Then the target URL in its original form, along with the date it was archived, need to be added to the Reference archive:

{{Reference archive|1=###|2=###}}

The first parameter is the original URL, and the second parameter is the date it was archived. The date format is year-month-day, all in numbers rather than words (e.g. 2014-02-26 rather than February 26, 2014).

If absolutely needed, embedded links to Wikipedia can be made by using the [[w:Target article|Text]] feature or {{wp|article name}}. As with embedded links to other sites, these links should never be used as a form of inline citation.

See Also

Additional help with formatting and other related issues can be found at: