List of Genocides, Cultural Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings under Islam
This article or section is being renovated.
This article is a dynamic list of genocides, cultural genocides and acts of ethnic cleansing under Muslim regimes from the origin of Islam to present day.
Mutual population exchanges, massacres and war crimes involving non-Muslims and Muslims (such as Greece–Turkey, India–Pakistan or Israel–Palestine) are excluded from this list.
The Main Table
- No color: Non-Muslims targeted
- Light green: Predominantly Muslims targeted
- Orange: Both Muslims and Non-Muslims targeted
- Dark green: Mainly Shia perpetrators
|No.||Victims||Region||Country (Present-Day Geographical Location)||Who was Responsible||Period||Notes|
|1||Arab polytheists||Arabian peninsula||Saudi Arabia||600s AD|
|2||Jews||Arabian peninsula||600s AD|
|3||Christians||Arabian peninsula||600s AD|
|Traditional Berber religion||North Africa||Arab Muslims||647 onwards|
|Berber Christians||Algeria||Umayyad Caliphate||647 onwards|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran , Iraq||Arab and Persian Muslims||642-early 10th century|||
|Buddhists||Kabul valley, Bamiyan etc.||Afghanistan||Saffarid dynasty||9th century AD|||
|Dards||Kashmir and northern Pakistan||India , Pakistan||Arab invaders, Swat princely state||c. 700 AD and 1858-1969||Most Dards were converted to Islam|
|Turgesh Turks, Sogdians||Transoxiana||Uzbekistan , Tajikistan , Kyrgyzstan||Umayyad Caliphate||721 onwards||The culture and heritage of the Sogdians was destroyed so thoroughly that it is almost impossible to reconstruct their history. In the post-Umayyad period, Islam had firmly penetrated here.|
|Coptic Christians||Egypt||Caliph al-Mamun and Muslim mobs||c.832-837||In a clash between Spanish Muslim invaders and Egyptian Muslims, Copts supported the former. So they were punished by looting and destruction of churches. The caliph also put down their rebellion by massacring them. Many monks were killed and monasteries destroyed in later years.|
|Buddhists, proto-Iranian Hindus, Shamanists, Manichaeans||Xinjiang province||Western China||Kara Khanids||900s to 1500s||There were centuries-long attacks in this region. Buddhist monuments and artefacts were also destroyed on a large scale. The area was largely Islamized.|
|Hindus and Buddhists||Gandhara||Afghanistan||Mahmud of Ghazni||998-1030||Mass conversions and coercions.|
|Hindus||India||Various Muslim invaders and rulers||1000-1525||The Hindu population of India fell by an estimated 60 to 80 million in this period. Detailed analyses of this event and the casualties are rare.|
|Jews||Siege of Cordoba||Spain||Berber Muslims led by Umayyad ruler||1013||The inhabitants of Cordoba including Jews were massacred and looted. It is said that 2000 of them were killed.|
|Jews||Fez||Morocco||Berber soldiers||1033||In this pogrom, Muslims killed more than 6000 Jews and took away their women and belongings.|
|Ismaili Shias||Sindh, in the Indian subcontinent||Pakistan||Mahmud of Ghazni||1025||Mahmud defeated the Shia ruler and slaughtered many Ismailis.|
|Serer religion||Tekrur||Senegal Gambia and nearby areas||King War Jabi, his Almoravid allies and many other African Muslims||1035-1867||The Serer were under pressure to embrace Islam for centuries. An unknown number of them died in these jihads but many of them scattered.|
|Armenian Christians||Ani||Turkey||Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan||1064||Part of the Muslim conquest of Anatolia.|
|Jews||Granada||Spain||1066||Muslims crucified the Jewish vizier and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.|
|Jews||Maghreb and Andalusia||Morocco , Spain (southern), Portugal , Tunisia||Almohad Caliphate||1126-1269||Jews were expelled, killed or forced to convert to Islam.|
|Jains||India||Various Muslim invaders||1100s-1600s||The Jains are a non-violent religion. Muslims killed many Jains, destroyed many of their temples and idols, looted their treasures, and burnt books. This persecution was frequent till the 17th century.|
|Buddhists||Bihar||India||Bakhtiyar Khilji||c.1197-1203||Famous Buddhist monasteries and universities were also destroyed|
|Buddhists||Maldives||c. 1200s onwards|
|Kanuri people||Kanem empire||Chad , Nigeria , Cameroon||Dunama Dabbalemi||1203 to 1243||All Kanuris converted to Islam as a result of a jihad.|
|Mongol converts to Islam||Delhi||India||Alauddin Khilji||1298||15,000-30,000 were killed|
|Assyrian Christians||Irbil/Arbela||Iraq||Kurds and Arabs||1310||After the siege of Irbil, about 150,000 of its Christians were massacred.|
|Hindus||Kashmir||India , Pakistan||Sikandar Butshikan||1389-1413|||
|Coptic Christians||Egypt||Mamluk Sultanate||1300s-1517||Rampant discrimination and persecution under the Pact of Umar forced a majority of Copts to convert to Islam. The Mamluks destroyed most of the churches and killed an estimated 300,000 Copts over the 13th century.|
|Maronites and Greek Orthodox Christians||Coast of the Levant||Lebanon , Syria||Mamluk Sultanate||1300s||These communities were expelled and their settlements were destroyed.|
|Nestorian Christians||Iraq , Iran , Uzbekistan||Timur||1380s-1405||Timur's raids and slaughters nearly exterminated the followers of the Nestorian Church in the Near East.|
|Jews||Fez||Morocco||1465||Muslim subjects overthrew the last Marinid ruler who had appointed many Jews to high positions. This had angered many Muslims and was one of the main pretexts for them to massacre the entire Jewish community of Fez.|
|Jews||Songhai Empire||Mali||Askia Mohammad I||1492||Askia decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave. He destroyed their synagogue. Most of the Jews converted to Islam, and intolerance by Malians towards them was reported as recently as the 20th century.|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran||Persian Muslims under the Safavid dynasty||1502-1747|||
|Sunnis||Persia||Iran , Iraq  Azerbaijan ||Safavid dynasty||1502-1722|
|Takkalu tribe||Persia||Shah Ismail|
|Shias||Kashmir||India||1500s to 1800s|||
|Yazidis||Baghdad, Mosul, Diyarbakir, etc.||Iraq , Syria , Turkey||Ottoman Empire||1500s to 1800s||A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but they declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire. Several expeditions were launched against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. The aim of these attacks was forced conversion of Yazidis to Sunni Hanafi Islam.|
|Alevis||Anatolia||Turkey||Selim I||1514||Sultan Selim, nicknamed "Selim the Grim", conducted a massacre of Alevis in 1514. The death toll is said to be 40,000.|
|Jews||Safed||present-day Israel||Retreating Mamluk army of Egypt and Arab civilians||1517||Jews were evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages.|
|Greek Cypriots||Nicosia||Cyprus||Ottoman army||1570||20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared.|
|Portuguese||India||Shah Jahan||1632||  When negotiations with Portuguese merchants broke down, Shah Jahan massacred their men and enslaved 4000 women and children at Hughli in Bengal.|
|Sikhs||Punjab||India , Pakistan||Aurangzeb||1658 onwards||Aurangzeb's frequent persecution of the Sikhs forced their peaceful community to transform into a warrior community.|
|Jews||Yemen||Imam of Yemen (Rassid dynasty)||1679–1680||The Jews of nearly all cities and towns in Yemen were exiled to a remote desert and left to die. Their property was also confiscated.|
|Austrian civilians||Perchtoldsdorf||Austria||Ottoman Empire||1683|||
|Civilians||Delhi||India||Nadir Shah||1739||In 7 hours, Nadir Shah had 20,000 men, women and children massacred in an incident termed as Qatl-e-aam in Persian. He also seized a lot of booty.|
|Sikhs||India , Pakistan||Mughal Empire vassals and Afghan soldiers||1746-62|||
|Kashmiri Pandits||Kashmir valley||India||Afghans||1764-1820s|||
|Mangalorean Catholics||Kingdom of Mysore||India||Tipu Sultan||1784-1799||This community were driven out of their homes, forced on a death march and kept as captives for 15 years. Many faced tortures, killings and forced conversions. Out of about 60,000 Catholics, at least 30,000 died en route or in captivity. Only 15,000–20,000 made it out as Christians.|
|Nair Hindus||Kingdom of Mysore||India||Tipu Sultan||Nair Hindus were subjected to forced conversions to Islam, death, and torture.  Out of 30,000 Nairs put to captivity (including women and children), only a few hundred returned alive.|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran||Persian Muslims under the Qajar dynasty||1796-1925||Zoroastrians regard this period as one of their worst. They were frequently massacred, taken as captives, robbed, overtaxed, converted or married by force, and denied basic rights.|
|Mandaeans||Iran||Qajar dynasty of Persia||18th and 19th centuries.|
|Civilians (mostly Shia)||Karbala||Iraq||1801 or 1802||The Saudis killed 2,000–5,000 people in a day. They also plundered and destroyed the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali.|
|Mamluks||Cairo and other places||Egypt||Muhammad Ali of Egypt||1805-1811||About 3,000 descendants of this slave-warrior clan were massacred. It was the end of the Mamluks in Egypt.|
|Melkite Christians||Aleppo||Syria||Ottoman Empire||1817-18||Most of this community fled from Syria and those who stayed were massacred.|
|Bektashis||Turkey||Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II||1826||The Bektashi order was outlawed and 4,000 to 7,500 of them were executed. Their shrines were destroyed.|
|Assyrian Christians||Bohtan and Hakkari||Iraq , Turkey||Badr Khan and Nurallah of Hakkari||1843-47||More than 1000 Christians were killed. The Muslim armies destroyed several villages and took prisoners as war booty.|
|Jews||Throughout the Middle East and North Africa||1840-1908||Following the Damascus affair, riots and massacres of Jews occurred in Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901–02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901–07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874).|
|Jews||Mashhad, Barfurush||Iran||1839, 1867||Mashhad witnessed forced conversions of Jews to Islam to avert a massarce. In Barfurush, Jews were massacred.|
|Hazara Shias||Afghanistan||Pashtuns||1888-90, 1892, 1893||The emir Abdul Rehman eliminated an estimated 60% of the Hazara population by massacres, enslavement, looting and pillaging of homes. Many of the survivors fled.|
|Armenians and Assyrians||Eastern Turkey||Turkey||Ottoman Empire
Kurdish and Turkoman irregulars
|1894–1896||100,000–300,000 were killed.|
|Serbs||Kolašin and other areas||Kosovo (present day)||Albanians under the Ottoman Empire||1901||The Serbs were targeted in several massacres, rapes, looting and eviction.|
|Uighur Christians||Xinjiang||China||First East Turkestan Republic||1894-1938||Most Uighur converts to Christianity were killed, tortured and jailed. Some Hindus were murdered and Christian missionaries were expelled.|
|Ahmediyyas||Afghanistan||Kings of Afghanistan||1900-1924||Ahmediyyas, a small minority in Afghanistan, were exterminated from there by killings and forced conversions to Sunni Islam.|
|Jews||Afghanistan||1900s-1951||The Afghan Jewish community declined from about 40,000 in the early 20th Century to 5,000 in 1934. Many Jews were expelled from their homes and robbed of their property. After 1951, most Jews moved to Israel and the United States.|
|Armenians||Adana Vilayet||Turkey||Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire||1909||15,000–30,000 were killed.|
|Bulgarians||Thrace||Turkey||Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire||1913||50,000–60,000 Thracian Bulgarians were murdered, which was around 20 % of the Bulgarian population in Thrace at that time. Most of the villages with a Bulgarian population were destroyed and the survivors expelled from their places of origin.|
|Maronite Christians||Mount Lebanon||Lebanon||Ottoman Empire||1915-1918||The Ottomans deliberately cut off food supplies to the Maronites in order to feed their military.|
|Assyrian Christians||Turkey , Iran ||1914-1918||200,000 to 275,000 were killed. About half of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire perished.|
|Armenians||Turkey||Ottoman Empire, Young Turks||1915-1918 or 1923||An estimated 600,000–1,800,000 Armenians were systematically massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars.|
|Kurds||Zilan river valley||Turkey||1930|||
|Jews||Thrace||Turkey||Turkish mobs||1934||The Thrace pogroms of Jews occurred in four cities. 1500 Jews fled the region and many soon left Turkey. Casualties unknown.|
|Alevi Kurds||Dersim||Turkey||1937-38||13,000-40,000 killed.|
|Tibetans||Qinghai Province||China||Ma Bufang and his Muslim soldiers||1932-41||The motive was ethnic cleansing of Tibetans and destruction of their culture, resulting in thousands of casualties.|
|Christians||Pakistan||Pakistani Muslim civilians and terrorists||2000s-present||In recent decades, Pakistani Christians have increasingly become victims of riots, bombings, church demolitions and imprisonment on mere allegations of blasphemy.|
|Iraqi and Kurdish Jews||Iraq||1941 and 1950s-1969|| See also: |
|Harkis||Algeria||An estimated 30,000 (and possibly as many as 150,000) Muslim supporters of the French colonizers were killed.|
|Igbo people||Nigeria||Hausa and Fulani tribes (both Muslim)||1966||10,000 to 30,000 Igbos were killed. These events led to a civil war.|
|Bihari Muslims and West Pakistanis||Bangladesh||Mukti Bahini militias and other Bengali Muslims||1971-72||About 30,000-200,000 were killed, during and after the war of independence of Bangladesh.|
|East Timor||Indonesia||1975-1999||Described as a genocide|
|Chakma, Marma, Tripuri and other indigenous people||Chittagong Hill Tracts||Bangladesh||Bangladeshi army and Muslim settlers||1977-1997|||
|Dinka people||Diein||Sudan||Rizeigat Muslims||1987|||
|Kashmiri Pandits and other Hindus||Kashmir valley||India||Kashmiri Muslim mobs and Pakistani terrorists||1989-2001|
|Kurds||Iraqi Kurdistan||Iraq||Saddam Hussein||1986-89||50,000-182,000 civilians killed.|
|Isaaq clan (Muslim) of Somalis||Somalia||Siad Barre||1988-1990||50,000-100,000 killed (possibly up to 200,000)|
|Bantu people (Christians, Muslims and Traditional African religion)||Jubba Valley||Somalia||Somali militias||1991 onwards|||
|Hazara Shias||Mazar-e-Sharif, Bamiyan||Afghanistan||Taliban||1998||More than 8,000 noncombatants were reported killed after the Taliban captured the city. Even goats and donkeys were not spared.|
|Serbian Christians||Kosovo||1999-2004||Many Serbs were expelled from entire villages and churches and symbols of Serb heritage were destroyed in this period.|
|Muslim Roma, Ashkalis and purported Egyptians||Kosovo||Albanian Muslims||1999 onwards||The persecution of these communities began during the Yugoslav wars but escalated after 1999. Most of them were expelled from Kosovo and their houses were destroyed.|
|Non-Arab and Black tribes (Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa)||Darfur||Sudan||Omar al-Bashir and janjaweed militias||2003-present|
|Christians||Somalia||Al Shabab||2005 onwards|||
|Christians||Palestine||Hamas, Muslim mobs, Islamic terorrist groups||2002 onwards||Muslims targeted Christians frequently in West Bank and Gaza, burning churches and grabbing properties. The Christian population fell from about 3,000 in 2007 to 1,400 in 2011. They were also the target of bomb attacks, murders and discrimination under Hamas rule.|
|Arab Christians, Levantines, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians (Syriacs or Chaldeans) and Copts||Iraq , Syria , Libya||ISIS||2014-||At least 1000 casualties. Described as a genocide by EU.|
|Shias (including ethnic Turkmen and Shabak)||Iraq , Syria||ISIS||2014-Present|||
|Christians and Muslims||Nigeria||Boko Haram||2014-present|||
|Coptic Christians||North Sinai||Egypt||ISIS||Feb 2017-present|||
- The Serbian church was persecuted for centuries under Turkish rule and severely weakened by the 18th century. This caused an out-migration of many Serbs from their native region and also a failed revolt.
- Since mid-1980s, more than 20,000 Shia Muslims and hundreds of Ahmadis have been killed in Pakistan by Sunni terrorists sponsored by generals of Pakistan Army.
- The Disappearance of Christianity from North Africa in the Wake of the Rise of Islam C. J. Speel, II Church History, Vol. 29, No. 4 (Dec., 1960), pp. 379-397
- Stepaniants 2002, p. 163
- Boyce 2001, p. 148
- Dr. Daryush Jahanian, "The History of Zoroastrians After Arab Invasion", European Centre for Zoroastrian Studies (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20090414093548/http://www.gatha.org/english/articles/000258.html.
- Hamid Wahed Alikuzai, A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, Volume 14 Trafford Publishing, 2013. 1490714413. p.120
- "Swat: an Afghan society in Pakistan : urbanisation and change in tribal environment", City Press, https://books.google.com/books?id=p_9tAAAAMAAJ&q=dard+people+swati&dq=dard+people+swati&lr=&cd=1.
- "Living in the high mountain valleys, the Nuristani retained their ancient culture and their religion, a form of ancient Hinduism with many customs and rituals developed locally. Certain deities were revered only by one tribe or community, but one deity was universally worshipped by all Nuristani as the Creator, the Hindu god Yama Raja, called imr'o or imra by the Nuristani tribes. Around 700 CE, Arab invaders swept through the region now known as Afghanistan, destroying or forcibly converting the population to their new Islamic religion. Refugees from the invaders fled into the higher valleys to escape the onslaught. In their mountain strongholds, the Nuristani escaped conversion conversion to Islam and retained their ancient religion and culture. The surrounding Muslim peoples used the name Kafir, meaning "unbeliever" or "infidel," to describe the independent Nuristani tribes and called their highland homeland Kafiristan.", Minahan, James B., "Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia" (in English), ABC-CLIO, p. 205, ISBN 9781610690188
- Peter Roudik. The History of the Central Asian Republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-313-34013-0, 2007. https://books.google.com/books?id=-8_3jbZU9ikC&pg=PT48&dq=sogdian+islam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiUpcz5uu3OAhXJ0RQKHeXYCoEQ6AEIMjAD#v=onepage&q=sogdian%20islam&f=false.
- Robert Morgan History of the Coptic Orthodox People and the Church of Egypt. FriesenPress, 21-Sep-2016. ISBN 9781460280270 p.203-205
- Dust in the Wind: Retracing Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western Pilgrimage. Rhythms Monthly. 2006. pp. 479–. ISBN 978-986-81419-8-8.
- Zhang, Longxi; Schneider, Axel, eds. (7 June 2013). "Lecture 4 The Nature of the Dunhuang Library Cave and the Reasons for its Sealing". Eighteen Lectures on Dunhuang. Brill's Humanities in China Library. 5. BRILL. pp. 132–. ISBN 90-04-25233-9.
- Afghanistan: a new history By Martin Ewans Edition: 2, illustrated Published by Routledge, 2002, Page 15, ISBN 0-415-29826-1, ISBN 978-0-415-29826-1
- Lal, K. S. Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India(1000-1800) (1973) pp. 211–217.
- A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707, Cambridge University Press, p 528, Stephen Neill.
- Kantor, Máttis (2005-11-01). Codex Judaica: Chronological index of Jewish history, covering 5,764 years of Biblical, Talmudic & post-Talmudic history. Zichron Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-9670378-3-7.
- (Fletcher, Richard (2006-05-05). Moorish Spain. University of California Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-520-24840-3.)
- Morris, Benny (1999). Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-2001. Random House, Inc. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-679-42120-7.
- Brann, Ross (2009-12-21). Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-Century Islamic Spain. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14673-7.
- Assaleh, Abu-Mohammed, "Historia dos soberanos mohametanos: das primeiras quatro dysnastias e de parte da quinta, que reinarao na Mauritania", Jozé de Santo Antonio Moura (trans.), Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, p. 117, 1828, https://books.google.com/books?id=WFUpAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Moura, Jozé de Santo Antonio, "Memórias de Academia das Ciências de Lisboa", Lisbon: Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, pp. 47–140, 1827.
- Morris, Jan (1959). The Hashemite kings. Pantheon. p. 85
- Beker, Avi, "Jewish communities of the world", Lerner Publications, p. 203, ISBN 0-8225-1934-8, 1998.
- Sarah F. D. Ansari. Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843-1947. Issue 50 of Cambridge South Asian Studies, ISSN 0575-6863, Volume 50 of South Asian studies. Cambridge University Press (1992). ISBN 0521405300. p.16.
- Mushirul Hasan, Asim Roy. Living Together Separately: Cultural India in History and Politics Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0195669215 p.156.
- Page, Willie F., "Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500)", pp 209, 676. Vol.2, Facts on File (2001), ISBN 0-8160-4472-4
- Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Ethnic Diversity and Integration in The Gambia: The Land, The People and The Culture, (2010), p 11, ISBN 9987-9322-2-3
- Streissguth, Thomas, "Senegal in Pictures, Visual Geography", Second Series, p 23, Twenty-First Century Books (2009), ISBN 1-57505-951-7
- Oliver, Roland Anthony, Fage, J. D., "Journal of African history", Volume 10, p 367. Cambridge University Press (1969)
- James Stuart Olson (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood. p. 516. ISBN 978-0-313-27918-8.
- John Julius (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Viking. pp. 342–343. ISBN 978-0-394-53779-5.
- Johnstone p.43
- Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, "GRANADA", Jewish Encyclopedia (archived), http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/6855-granada.
- Laqueur, Walter (2006). The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-19-530429-9. LCCN 2005030491. OCLC 62127914.
- Frank and Leaman, The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. 2003, pp. 137–138
- M.J. Viguera. "Almohads." Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World. Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman. Brill Online, 2014
- von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1925), Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation [Der Jainismus: Eine Indische Erlosungsreligion], Shridhar B. Shrotri (trans.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (Reprinted: 1999), ISBN 81-208-1376-6 pp.73-74 p.81.
- Dundas, Paul (2002) , The Jains (Second ed.), London and New York City: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X pp. 145-146, 83, 124, p.163, pp. 220-221
- "The rich body of medieval Jain literature is notable for its strident assertion of the power of the faith and images to withstand the Islamic onslaught. Images that had retreated or gone into exile reappear more powerful than ever, and even those mutilated reveal increased ability to perform miracles. Jain literature discusses the entire gamut of problems related to image worship in the medieval era, including the appropriate medium in which to fashion icons in times of Muslim threat, the sufferings of the true faith in an age of declining virtue, the necessity of hiding images for safety, the divine order to unearth images and resume their worship, the smashing of images by those wicked Muslims and their final restitution through the agency of a devotee.", Jain, Meenakshi, "Review of Romila Thapar’s Somanatha: The Many Voices of a History", The Pioneer, 21 March 2004 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20170630173749/http://hindureview.com/2004/04/20/review-romila-thapar%C2%92s-%C2%93somanatha-many-voices-history/
- Ishwari Prasad, Medieval India (Allahabad, Fourth Publication, 1940), p.138.
- The Indian Antiquary, Vol. IV, pp.366-67.
- Habibullah, Abul Barkat Muhammad. The Foundation of Muslim Rule in India. (Allahabad, 1961). p.147.
- Barkindo, Bawuro, "The early states of the Central Sudan: Kanem, Borno and some of their neighbours to c. 1500 A.D.", in: J. Ajayi und M. Crowder (ed.), History of West Africa, vol. I, 3. ed. Harlow 1985, 225-254.
- "Three Continents, One History: Birmingham, the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Caribbean", p. 18, by Clive Harris.
- Smith, Vincent A. The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press.
- Grousset, René, The Empire of the Steppes (French), translated by Naomi Walford, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press (1970) p. 383
- Johnstone p.49
- Kaw, K.; Kashmir Education, Culture, and Science Society (2004). Kashmir and Its People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. ISBN 9788176485371. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Haidar Malik Chãdurãh. Tãrîkh-i-Kashmîr. edited and translated into English by Razia Bano, Delhi, 1991. p. 55.
- Stilt, Kristen (2011). Islamic Law in Action: Authority, Discretion, and Everyday Experiences in Mamluk Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199602438. p.120.
- Johnstone p.49
- Teule, Herman G. B. (2013). "Introduction: Constantinople and Granada, Christian-Muslim Interaction 1350-1516". In Thomas, David; Mallett, Alex. Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History, Volume 5 (1350-1500). p.11. Brill. ISBN 9789004252783.
- Haddad, Heskel M. (1984). Jews of Arab and Islamic countries: history, problems, solutions. Shengold Publishers. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-88400-100-3.
- Maya Shatzmiller, The Berbers And The Islamic State:The Marinid Experience In Pre-Protectorate Morocco, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2000, p. 67.
- Karen Primack, "The Renewal of Jewish Identity in Timbuktu" (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20041017005023/http://www.kulanu.org:80/timbuktu/timbuktu.html.
- Jahanian, Daryoush. The History of Zoroastrians after Arab Invasion; Alien in Their Homeland. The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. 1996 and 2001.
- Iraq: Old Land, New Nation in Conflict, By William Spencer, pg.51
- Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces, By Steven R. Ward, pg.43
- Commins, David Dean. Historical Dictionary of Syria. Scarecrow Press. p. 282. ISBN 0-8108-4934-8.
- Ghareeb, Edmund A. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Scarecrow Press. p. 248. ISBN 0-8108-4330-7.
- Hastings, James (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 18. Kessinger. p. 769. ISBN 0-7661-3695-7.
- Steven Vertovec. "PART II Historical geographies of diversity". Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies (Revised ed.). Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 9781317600695, 20-Nov-2014. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=az2LBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=Selim+the+Grim+massacres+40,000+Anatolian+Shi%27ites&source=bl&ots=2OQitRL8m6&sig=wWPSTMCwAPI1c5_5mOcYYAS1Ruk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjr3fyt9qzVAhUDrJQKHahrDtcQ6AEIOjAF#v=onepage&q=Selim%20the%20Grim%20massacres%2040%2C000%20Anatolian%20Shi'ites&f=false.
- Shmuelevitz, Aryeh (1999). history and society: Jewish sources. Isis Press. p. 15: "[Rabbi Elijah] Capsali, relying on Jewish informants, was perhaps better informed about what was happening to Jewish communities in remote parts of the Empire. He wrote about Jews suffering in time of war: the pogrom in Safed during Selim I's campaign against the Mamluks for the conquest of Syria, Palestine and Egypt; and preparations for a pogrom against the Jewish community in Cairo on the eve of Selim’s conquest of the city.'
- David, Abraham (2010). To Come to the Land: Immigration and Settlement in 16th-Century Eretz-Israel. Translated by Dena Ordan. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-5643-9. p.97.
- David, Abraham (1999). In Zion and Jerusalem: the itinerary of Rabbi Moses Basola (1521-1523). Translated by Dena Ordan. Bar-Ilan University. ISBN 978-9-6522-2926-7. p.62.
- Finkelstein, Louis (1970). "Eretz Yisrael Under Ottoman Rule, 1517-1917". The Jews: Their History. Schocken Books. p.407.
- Fine, Lawrence (2003). Physician of the Soul, Healer of the Cosmos: Isaac Luria and His Kabbalistic Fellowship. Stanford University Press. p.44.
- Hopkins, T. C. F. (2007). Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom Vs. Islam. Macmillan p.82
- Turnbull, Stephen (2003). The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699 (Essential Histories Series #62). Osprey Publishing. p. 58
- Johnstone p.52
- Stephen Howarth, The Koh-I-Noor Diamond: The History and the Legend, Quartet Books (1980), ISBN 0704322153 p.74
- Diana Preston, Michael Preston. A Teardrop on the Cheek of Time: The Story of the Taj Mahal  Random House, 2010. ISBN 1446421465, 416 pages.
- McLeod, Hew (1987). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (s1): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
- Surinder Singh Bakhshi (2009), Sikhs in the Diaspora, pp.68-69, 0956072801
- Latham, Martin. "The Sikhs." The Round Table, 74 no. 293 (1985): 21-29.
- Yosef Tobi, The Jews of Yemen (Studies in Their History and Culture), Brill: Leiden 1999, pp. 77-79
- Yosef Qafiḥ (ed.), “Qorot Yisra’el be-Teman by Rabbi Ḥayim Ḥibshush,” Sefunot, Volume 2, Ben-Zvi Institute: Jerusalem 1958, pp. 246-286 (Hebrew). Yosef Qafiḥ, Ketavim (Collected Papers), Vol. 2, Jerusalem 1989, p. 714 (Hebrew)
- Yemenite Jewry: Origins, Culture and Literature, by Rueben Aharoni, Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1986, pp. 121–135
- P.S. van Koningsveld, J. Sadan & Q. Al-Samarrai, Yemenite Authorities and Jewish Messianism, Leiden University 1990, pp. 156-158. ISBN 9071220079
- Condé Nast's Traveler, Volume 32. "Vienna Woods". Condé Nast Publications. 1997. "The first thing I did was to search out the local museum, which was in the mayor's office. Herr Heiduschka, the mayor, was only too happy to show me around, and we started with the painting on the wall behind his desk. There were headless corpses sprawled on the ground, blood spurting out of their necks like ghoulish fountains designed by Dracula. Women on their knees begged for mercy from swarthy turbaned men on horseback with scimitars whose blades were crimson and dripping. I couldn't appreciate his village, the mayor declared, until I understood that picture. "Here you see the massacre of the people of Perchtoldsdorf by the Osmanli in 1683," he told me. "They killed everybody - men, women, and children. Only a single family, who had managed to hide deep in a cellar, survived." The mayor pointed to the very wall where they had hidden. "And their descendants, by the name of Rabl, still live here even today," he concluded with deep pride."
- Michael Axworthy, The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant. Hardcover. p8 (26 July 2006) Publisher: I.B. Tauris Language: English ISBN 1-85043-706-8
- Jaswant Lal Mehta. "Decline of the Mughal Empire". Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 9781932705546, 2005. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA38&dq=nadir+shah+delhi&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=nadir%20shah%20delhi&f=false.
- Hari Ram Gupta, A History of the Sikhs from Nadir Shah's Invasion to the Rise of Ranjit Singh (1739–1799); Volume I: Evolution of the Sikh Confederacies (1739–1768), Simla, Minerva Book Shop, 1952, pp. 79–83.
- Col. Tej K Tikoo. Kashmir: Its Aborigines and Their Exodus Lancer Publishers. ISBN 1935501585.
- Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999), Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians, I.J.A. Publications. ISBN 978-81-86778-25-8. p. 216.
- Prabhu p. xiv
- Fernandes 1969, p. 120
- Knight 1858, p. 94
- Sharma 1991, pp. 34–35
- Palsokar 1969, pp. 75–79
- Punganuri 1849, p. 40
- Prabhu 1999, p. 250
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain). p. 494, 1842. https://books.google.com/books?id=Ad9PAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA494.
- Price Massoume (2005), Iran's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook (Illustrated ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781576079935. p. 111.
- Shahmardan, Rashid. History of Zoroastrians past Sasanians. p.125.
- Browne 1893, A year amongst the Persians, Adam and Charles Black, p. 372
- Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, The Mandaeans: Ancient Texts and Modern People, New York: Oxford University Press 2002. p.6.
- Khatab, Sayed. Understanding Islamic Fundamentalism: The Theological and Ideological Basis of Al-Qa'ida's Political Tactics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9789774164996. p.74
- Litvak, Meir (2010)."KARBALA", Iranica Online (archived), http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karbala.
- Vassiliev, Alexei. The History of Saudi Arabia. Saqi. ISBN 9780863567797
- Richard Cavendish, "The Mamelukes are massacred in Egypt" (archived), http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/mamelukes-are-massacred-egypt.
- "OVERVIEW OF RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF SYRIA" (archived), http://www.ewtn.com/library/chistory/syriahis.htm.
- Yūsuf Shammās. The Melkite Church. p. 103, 1992. http://www.worldcat.org/title/melkite-church/oclc/233994580. OCLC Number: 233994580
- İsmail Özmen & Koçak Yunus: Hamdullah Çelebi'nin Savunması - Bir inanç abidesinin çileli yaşamı, Ankara, 2008, p. 74, 205 & 207
- Gaunt, D; Beṯ-Şawoce, J (2006), Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press LLC, ISBN 978-1-59333-301-0. p. 32.
- Aboona, Hirmis (2008), Assyrians, Kurds, and Ottomans: intercommunal relations on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire, Cambria Press, ISBN 978-1-60497-583-3. pp.218-219
- Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. Vintage Books, 2001, pp. 10–11.
- Patai, Raphael (1997). Jadid al-Islam: The Jewish "New Muslims" of Meshhed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2652-8.
- Friedrich W. Affolter, "The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá’ís of Iran*", 2005 (archived), http://bahai-library.com/pdf/a/affolter_ideological_genocide.pdf. War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity. Volume 1, no. 1. p.79
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Afghanistan : Hazaras", UNHCR and Minority Rights Group International (archived), http://www.refworld.org/docid/49749d693d.html.
- "HAZĀRA: ii. HISTORY". Alessandro Monsutti (Online ed.). United States: Encyclopædia Iranica. December 15, 2003. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hazara-2
- Mousavi, Sayed Askar (1998) . The Hazaras of Afghanistan: An Historical, Cultural, Economic and Political Study. Richmond, NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-17386-5.
- Akçam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006, p. 42. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7.
- Bataković, Dušan T. (1988) . "Погибија руског конзула Г. С. Шчербине у Митровици 1903. године". Историјски институт. XXXIV: 309–325.
- Kosovsko-Metohijski zbornik. 3. SANU. 2005. p. 191.
- Skendi, Stavro (2015). The Albanian National Awakening. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-4776-1. p.201, p.293
- Missionary Review of the World ; 1878-1939. Princeton Press. 1939. p. 130. vol.62.
- Claydon, David (2005). A New Vision, a New Heart, a Renewed Call. William Carey Library. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-87808-363-3.
- Uhalley, Stephen; Wu, Xiaoxin (2015). China and Christianity: Burdened Past, Hopeful Future. London: Routledge. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-317-47501-9.
- Forbes, Andrew D. W. (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 84, 87. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
- Frank A. Martin, Under the Absolute Amir, ISBN 978-1-4304-9488-1, p.204
- Adil Hussain Khan. From Sufism to Ahmadiyya: A Muslim Minority Movement in South Asia Indiana University Press, 6 April 2015 pp.131-133
- Yohanan Friedmann. Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background, Oxford University Press India 2003, pg 26–29
- Vincent Littrell. [Islam: Ahmadiyya]. World Association of International Studies. (John Eipper, USA, 02/17/06).
- "Trials of Jews in Afghanistan Bared in Persia | Jewish Telegraphic Agency", JTA, 1934-07-11, http://www.jta.org/1934/07/11/archive/trials-of-jews-in-afghanistan-bared-in-persia.
- "Soviet Press Reports Anti-jewish Pogrom Occurred in Afghanistan | Jewish Telegraphic Agency", JTA, 1929-05-20, http://www.jta.org/1929/05/20/archive/soviet-press-reports-anti-jewish-pogrom-occurred-in-afghanistan.
- Joan G. Roland. The Jewish Communities of India: Identity in a Colonial Era. Transaction Publishers. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-4128-3748-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=kHJccZ92IecC&pg=PA349.
- On wings of eagles: the plight, exodus, and homecoming of oriental Jewry by Joseph Schechtman pp 258-259
- "The Jewish Transcript January 19, 1934 Page 7", Jtn.stparchive.com, 1934-01-19, http://jtn.stparchive.com/Archive/JTN/JTN01191934P07.php.
- New York, 19 June 2007 (RFE/RL), U.S.: Afghan Jews Keep Traditions Alive Far From Home
- Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, page 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
- Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
- Nikolai Vukov. "Resettlement Waves, Historical Memory and Identity Construction: The Case of Thracian Refugees in Bulgaria". Migration in the Southern Balkans. Springer International. p. 63-84. ISBN 9783319137186, 2015 (archived). https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-13719-3_4. doi 10.1007/978-3-319-13719-3
- Carnegie (1914). Report of the international commission to inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan Wars. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. pp. 123–135.
- Harris, William (2012). Lebanon: A History, 600–2011. Oxford University Press. pp. 173–179. ISBN 9780195181111.
- Alexander Laban Hinton,Thomas La Pointe,Douglas Irvin-Erickson. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. pp 117. Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0813561647.
- Travis, Hannibal. 'Native Christians Massacred: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians During World War I. Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, pp. 327–371.
- (French) Yacoub, Joseph. La question assyro-chaldéenne, les Puissances européennes et la SDN (1908–1938), 4 vol., thèse Lyon, 1985, p. 156.
- Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. "The Assyrian Genocide." Routledge. ISBN 9781136937965.
- Göçek, Fatma Müge (2015). Denial of violence : Ottoman past, Turkish present and collective violence against the Armenians, 1789-2009. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 019933420X.
- Auron, Yair (2000). The banality of indifference: Zionism & the Armenian genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7658-0881-3.
- Özkimirli, Umut; Sofos, Spyros A (2008). Tormented by history: nationalism in Greece and Turkey. Columbia University Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780231700528. OCLC 608489245.
- Bayraktar, Hatice (May 2006), "The anti-Jewish pogrom in Eastern Thrace in 1934: new evidence for the responsibility of the Turkish government", Patterns of Prejudice, Routledge, 40 (2): 95–111, doi:10.1080/00313220600634238
- David McDowall. A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition p. 209, I.B.Tauris, 2004. ISBN 1850434166.
- Rab-brtan-rdo-rje (Ñag-roṅ-pa.) (translated by Jamyang Norbu) (1979). Horseman in the snow: the story of Aten, an old Khampa warrior. Information Office, Central Tibetan Secretariat. p. 134.
- Jamyang Norbu (1986). Warriors of Tibet: the story of Aten, and the Khampas' fight for the freedom of their country. Wisdom Publications. p. gbooks says 46, (the actual paper says 146). ISBN 0-86171-050-9.
- Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
- David S. G. Goodman (2004). China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-521-61349-3.
- Bulag, Uradyn Erden (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 54. ISBN 0-7425-1144-8.
- "“I call it a ‘drip drip genocide’, because it’s the most dangerous kind of wiping out of religious communities,” said Ispahani, whose book ‘Purifying the Land of the Pure’ was launched in the US this month. “It (genocide) doesn’t happen in one day. It doesn’t happen over a few months. Little by little by little, laws and institutions and bureaucracies and penal codes, textbooks that malign other communities, until you come to the point of having this sort of jihadi culture that is running rampant”.", "Religious minorities experiencing genocide in Pakistan: Scholar", HT (archived), http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/religious-minorities-experiencing-genocide-in-pakistan-scholar/story-t49a0hvBKq1Q0zbOYx5G0N.html
- Republic of fear: the politics of modern Iraq By Kanan Makiya, chapter 2 "A World of Fear", University of California 1998
- Sheehan, James. The Monopoly of Violence. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-571-22086-1.
- John Keegan (1993), p.55, A History of Warfare. Random House. ISBN 0-09-174527-6
- Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace. p. 537. ISBN 0-670-61964-7.
- Akinyemi, A.B. (October 1972). "The British Press and the Nigerian Civil War". African Affairs. Oxford University Press. 71 (285): 408–426. JSTOR 720847.
- McKenna, Joseph C. (1969). "Elements of a Nigerian Peace". Foreign Affairs. 47 (4): 668. JSTOR 20039407. doi:10.2307/20039407.
- Abbott, Charles; Anthony, Douglas A. (2003). "Poison and Medicine: Ethnicity, Power, and Violence in a Nigerian City, 1966-86". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 36 (1): 133. JSTOR 3559324. doi:10.2307/3559324.
- Gerlach, Christian (2010). Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70681-0. p.148. 
- Bennett Jones, Owen (2003). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (2nd revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-300-10147-8.
- Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 231. ISBN 978-0415486194.
- Saikia, Yasmin (2011). Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971. Duke University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8223-5038-5.
- Nagendra K. Singh (2003). Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 222–223. ISBN 81-261-1390-1.
- Shelley, Mizanur Rahman (1992). The Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh: The untold story. Centre for Development Research, Bangladesh. p. 129.
- John Piper. Let the Nations Be Glad!: The Supremacy of God in Missions (3 ed.). Baker Academic. p. 103. ISBN 9781441207647, 2010.
- "Iraqi Anfal", Human Rights Watch, 1993, http://hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/.
- The Crimes of Saddam Hussein – 1988 The Anfal Campaign PBS Frontline.
- Peifer, Douglas C. (in en). Stopping Mass Killings in Africa: Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781437912814, 2009-05-01. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tOgOwSXB164C&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=50,000&source=bl&ots=gDxdHZNEgV&sig=tQB8KBkmIN2qBGzghefetUE7ITo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwig3YSDnsjRAhVI1BoKHbKaBUEQ6AEIIjAB#v=onepage&q=50,000%20isaaq%20deaths&f=false.
- Straus, Scott (in en). Making and Unmaking Nations: The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801455674, 2015-03-24. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=mKWiBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT149&dq=&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi17-PMzMzRAhXLVhoKHZERA3w4ChDoAQg-MAc#v=onepage&q=%22large%20systematic%20scale%22&f=false.
- Jones, Adam (in en). Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity. Zed Books. ISBN 9781842771914, 2017-01-22. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZybbAAAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=By+then,+any+surviving+urban+Isaaks+-.
- "Investigating genocide in Somaliland", http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/02/investigating-genocide-somaliland-20142310820367509.html.
- Catherine L. Besteman, "Genocide in Somalia’s Jubba Valley and Somali Bantu Refugees in the U.S.", Social Science Research Council, April 9 2007 (archived), http://hornofafrica.ssrc.org/Besteman/.
- Goodson, Larry P.Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban, University of Washington Press (2001), ISBN 0295981113 p.79
- Ahmed Rashid. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (2000), p.73.
- "11 years since "March Pogrom" of Serbs in Kosovo", B92, 17 March 2015, http://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics.php?yyyy=2015&mm=03&dd=17&nav_id=93505.
- Anti-Serb programs in Kosovo, By The Washington Times
- ERP KiM Info, "Dopunjeni i ispravljeni spisak uništenih i oštećenih pravoslavnih crkava i manastira na Kosovu u toku martovskog nasilja", B92 Specijal, B92, 26 April 2004, http://www.b92.net/specijal/kosovo2004/unistenecrkve.php.
- Claude Cahn, "Birth of a Nation: Kosovo and the Persecution of Pariah Minorities", ISSN 2071-8322, 2007 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20150215183028/http://www.germanlawjournal.org/pdfs/Vol08No01/PDF_Vol_08_No_01_81-94_SI_Cahn.pdf.
- "Memorandum of the Society for Threatened People on the Issue of Lead Poisoning of Roma in IDP Camps in Kosovo", http://www.gfbv.it/2c-stampa/2005/050201en.html.
- "Somalia's embattled Christians: Almost expunged", The Economist (archived), http://www.economist.com/node/14707279.
- Radin, Charles A., "Defendants killed in court; mob fears grow in West Bank", The Boston Globe, 6 February 2002, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7705112.html.
- de Quetteville, Harry, "'Islamic mafia' accused of persecuting Holy Land Christians", The Daily Telegraph, London, 9 September 2005, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/palestinianauthority/1498033/Islamic-mafia-accused-of-persecuting-Holy-Land-Christians.html.
- "Muslim attacks against Christians on the rise in West Bank", World Tribune, 28 May 2012 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20160212000435/http://www.worldnewstribune.com/2012/05/28/muslim-attacks-against-christians-on-the-rise-in-west-bank/.
- Hadid, Diaa, "For Gaza's Christians, new reality unsettling", The Houston Chronicle, Associated Press, 27 June 2007, http://www.chron.com/news/nation-world/article/For-Gaza-s-Christians-new-reality-unsettling-1807109.php.
- Abu Toameh, Khaled, "Christian-Muslim tensions heat up", 25 April 2007, http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast//Article.aspx?id=76420.
- Silver, Eric, "Gaza's Christian bookseller killed", The Independent, London, 8 October 2007, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/gazas-christian-bookseller-killed-396283.html.
- "Militants bomb Gaza YMCA library", BBC News, 15 February 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7246454.stm.
- Greenwood, Phoebe, "Gaza Christians long for days before Hamas cancelled Christmas", The Guardian, London, 23 December 2011, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/dec/23/gaza-christians-hamas-cancelled-christmas.
- "At least a thousand Christians have been killed. Hundreds of thousands have fled.", "As Christians Flee, Governments Pressured To Declare ISIS Guilty Of Genocide", NPR, 24 December 2015, http://www.npr.org/2015/12/24/460906980/as-christians-flee-governments-pressured-to-declare-isis-guilty-of-genocide
- 2014. Seven Egyptian Christians found shot execution-style on Libyan beach Reuters.
- Moore, Jack. "European Parliament Recognizes ISIS Killing of Religious Minorities as Genocide", February 4, 2016.
- Kaplan, Michael. "ISIS Genocide Against Christians, Yazidis? European Parliament Recognizes Islamic State Targeting Religious Minorities", February 4, 2016. “The European Parliament characterized the persecution as "genocide" Thursday.”
- JOINT MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION, European Parliament.
- Harding, Luke; Irbil, Fazel Hawramy, "Isis accused of ethnic cleansing as story of Shia prison massacre emerges", https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/25/isis-ethnic-cleansing-shia-prisoners-iraq-mosul.
- https://www.naij.com/1097991-catholic-bishop-reveals-boko-haram-killed-500-priests-borno-state.html Archive at 
- John Anthony McGuckin. "Serbian Church Under Ottoman And Habsburg Rule". The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444392548, 2010. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=JmFetR5Wqd8C&pg=PT1111&lpg=PT1111&dq=ottoman+persecution+orthodox&source=bl&ots=SptLtIlsKK&sig=Br-7RQXh6EYrgANkBEv_BGKXz0Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjyuqPWkIHVAhUCTI8KHSN8BvAQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=ottoman%20persecution%20orthodox&f=false.
- Over the last several decades 6000 Shia children killed in Pakistan + Pic - ABNA, November 18, 2012 See also , archived at .
- Boyce, Mary (2001), Zoroastrians, their religious beliefs and practices (2 ed.), New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 148-252, ISBN 9780415239028
- Stepaniants, Marietta (2002), "The Encounter of Zoroastrianism with Islam", Philosophy East and West, University of Hawai'i Press, 52 (2): pp. 159–172, doi:10.1353/pew.2002.0030, ISSN 0031-8221, JSTOR 1399963.
- Johnstone, Patrick. The Future of the Global Church: History, Trends and Possiblities InterVarsity Press, 17 Jan 2014. ISBN 0830856951